While the technical skills required for administrative tasks may vary from business to business (such as proficiency with specific software or platforms), there are several soft or “interpersonal” skills common among people with strong administrative skills. (2) Even if individual development does take place, some companies, by placing all of their emphasis on human skill, may be completely overlooking the training requirements for top positions. Another excellent way to develop conceptual skill is through trading jobs, that is, by moving promising young men through different functions of the business but at the same level of responsibility. It can help to meet with trusted friends, colleagues or mentors to identify areas of improvement to determine which skills you should prioritize. “I think we should discuss setting the base rate [production quota before incentive bonus] on a daily basis instead of a weekly basis. Administrative professionals might also be in charge of organizing supply closets, filing systems, processes and more. Related: 6 Important Job Skills You Can Learn at Work (And How to Learn Them). These three men make up an executive committee which has been outstandingly successful, the skills of each member making up for deficiencies of the others. We talk of “born leaders,” “born executives,” “born salesmen.” It is undoubtedly true that certain people, naturally or innately, possess greater aptitude or ability in certain skills. As a result, the supervisors spent much of their time competing with one another for the manager’s favor. It takes unique administrative skills and tremendous adaptability to succeed as an administrative professional. As such, employees in this role need strong organizational skillsto succeed. [Workers had previously been paid on a daily straight piecework basis. Often an office administrator is responsible for keeping track of not only his/her tasks and calendar but also that of the other office workers and … A number of methods have been tried to aid in developing this ability, with varying success. However, during the four years of formalized control, the foremen had grown away from their old practices, many had left the company, and adequate replacements had not been developed. In administration, it is common to answer questions for others or perform certain tasks that others are unable to do themselves. When Benjamin F. Fairless, now chairman of the board of the United States Steel Corporation, was president of the corporation, he described his coaching activities: “When one of my vice presidents or the head of one of our operating companies comes to me for instructions, I generally counter by asking him questions. You must also be able to use various types of communication including verbal, nonverbal, written and visual communication. Then this conversation took place: Production Manager: “I’ve had a lot of experience with conveyors. Few, for instance, would dispute the fact that a top manager needs good judgment, the ability to make decisions, the ability to win respect of others, and all the other well-worn phrases any management man could mention. Many executive development programs may be failing to achieve satisfactory results because of their inability to foster the growth of these administrative skills. It is the purpose of this article to suggest what may be a more useful approach to the selection and development of administrators. Like human skill, conceptual skill, too, must become a natural part of the executive’s makeup. Their human and conceptual skills seem to make up for their unfamiliarity with the new job’s technical aspects. It is important that they speak clearly and loudly, maintaining a positive tone. For example, one medium-size midwestern distributing organization has as president a man of unusual conceptual ability but extremely limited human skill. If you have a colleague or manager that has strong administrative skills that you find effective, try adopting their practices in your own work. At higher levels, technical skill becomes relatively less important while the need for conceptual skill increases rapidly. Take time to make a clean, organized workspace for yourself that can help you prioritize tasks, manage your time well and respond quickly to others who need the information you have. 6. When this article was first published nearly 20 years ago, there was a great deal of interest in trying to identify a set of ideal personality traits that would readily distinguish potential executive talent. Having strong teamwork skills can help you when collaborating on administrative projects, developing a new process, communicating and putting a new process into place or delegating tasks. Because the manager was inconsistent and unpredictable in his behavior, the supervisors were insecure and continually engaged in interdepartmental squabbles which they tried to keep hidden from the manager. Which, then, can we identify as a desirable characteristic? They depended on him to set their objectives and to show them how to reach them. Yet somewhere in the organization, he needs to have a well-informed, objective, understanding, and supportive sounding board with whom he can freely discuss his doubts, fears, and aspirations. Human skill, the ability to work with others, is essential to effective administration at every level. Having a good handle on the following administrative skills will not only enable you to perform your duties efficiently and effectively but will aid in developing your career, making you a more desirable candidate for employers. As an administrator has to deal with new issues, he should be able to get a grasp of all the modern concepts and provide solutions to problems. First thing I know, he has told me how to solve the problem himself.”14. Find out for yourself how these vital skills can be put to work today. Get these people thinking in terms of 2 pairs of shoes a minute, 70 dozen pairs a day, 350 dozen pairs a week. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. In the original article, I suggested that specific technical skills are unimportant at top management levels. Prioritization. It is relatively easy for us to visualize the technical skill of the surgeon, the musician, the accountant, or the engineer when each is performing his own special function. This base rate was 50% higher than under the old system.]. Moreover, he must change his management style and strike different balances among his personal skills as conditions change or as his organization grows in size and complexity. Others can be individually aided by their immediate superiors as an integral part of the “coaching” process to be described later. These procedures, which indicate what a man can do in specific situations, are the same for selection and for measuring development. If he is overly friendly or supportive, he may compromise his effectiveness or his objectivity. In coping with these varied conditions, he may appear to demonstrate one trait in one instance—e.g., dominance when dealing with subordinates—and the directly opposite trait under another set of circumstances—e.g., submissiveness when dealing with superiors. He needs to be able to both communicate well, which will make his directives clear and also keep morale high, and be organized so that he can coordinate efforts smoothly. They are the ability of an accountant to understand cash flow statements, income statements and balance sheets. Communication is a crucial skill to have when performing administrative tasks. Sound grounding in the principles, structures, and processes of the individual specialty, coupled with actual practice and experience during which the individual is watched and helped by a superior, appear to be most effective. Not only does the effective coordination of the various parts of the business depend on the conceptual skill of the administrators involved, but so also does the whole future direction and tone of the organization. Microsoft Office. Indeed is not a career or legal advisor and does not guarantee job interviews or offers. He must establish the standards and controls necessary to monitor progress and to place limits on individual actions. The engineer, who reported directly to the production manager, objected, but under pressure he agreed to take the job “until a suitable foreman could be found,” even though this was a job of lower status than his present one. Programs which concentrate on the mere imparting of information or the cultivation of a specific trait would seem to be largely unproductive in enhancing the administrative skills of candidates. But if his conceptual skill is weak, the success of the whole organization may be jeopardized. As used here, technical skill implies an understanding of, and proficiency in, a specific kind of activity, particularly one involving methods, processes, procedures, or techniques. The qualities most needed by a shop superintendent are likely to be quite opposed to those needed by a coordinating vice president of manufacturing. Technical skill involves specialized knowledge, analytical ability within that specialty, and facility in the use of the tools and techniques of the specific discipline. In "Skills of an Effective Administrator," Robert L. Katz identifies the three fundamental abilities companies should seek to develop in their managers. This would seem to be an excellent example of a situation in which strong conceptual skill more than compensated for a lack of human skill. I cited as evidence the many professional managers who move easily from one industry to another without apparent loss of effectiveness. Not only must the chief executive be an efficient operator, but he must also be an effective strategist. It would appear important, then, that the training of a candidate for an administrative position be directed at the development of those skills which are most needed at the level of responsibility for which he is being considered. They told him only the things they thought he wanted to hear, and spent much time trying to find out his desires. Yet because effective management of the total enterprise involves constant suboptimizing, it is impossible for the chief executive to get unanimous or continuous support from his subordinates. Administrative skills are qualities that help you complete tasks related to managing a business. Although the selection and training of good administrators is widely recognized as one of American industry’s most pressing problems, there is surprisingly little agreement among executives or educators on what makes a good administrator. But such a confidant requires just as high a degree of conceptual and human skills as the chief executive himself; and to be truly helpful, he must know all about the company’s operations, key personnel, and industry. An administrative role falls under the management umbrella, much like every other role, but the difference between a manager and an administrative officer is that the administrative officer focuses primarily on other resources and less on human resources. For larger groups, the use of case problems coupled with impromptu role playing can be very effective. 12. I now realize more fully that managers at all levels require some competence in each of the three skills. As we go higher and higher in the administrative echelons, the number and frequency of these personal contacts decrease, and the need for human skill becomes proportionately, although probably not absolutely, less. When, for example, an important change in marketing policy is made, it is critical that the effects on production, control, finance, research, and the people involved be considered. Such a person works to create an atmosphere of approval and security in which subordinates feel free to express themselves without fear of censure or ridicule, by encouraging them to participate in the planning and carrying out of those things which directly affect them. It would be unrealistic to assert that these skills are not interrelated, yet there may be real merit in examining each one separately, and in developing them independently. But research in psychology and physiology would also indicate, first, that those having strong aptitudes and abilities can improve their skill through practice and training, and, secondly, that even those lacking the natural ability can improve their performance and over-all effectiveness. “What Should a President Do?” Dun’s Review, August 1951, p. 21. We are all familiar with those “professional managers” who are becoming the prototypes of our modern executive world. These attitudes are a reflection of the administrator’s conceptual skill (referred to by some as his “creative ability”—the way he perceives and responds to the direction in which the business should grow, company objectives and policies, and stockholders’ and employees’ interests. Good communication skills are critical to anyone's success in business and possibly even more so in the case of an administrative assistant. It would appear, then, that at lower levels of administrative responsibility, the principal need is for technical and human skills. In trying to predetermine a prospective candidate’s abilities on a job, much use is being made these days of various kinds of testing devices. But the innovative role (developing and expanding the organization) demands high competence in both conceptual and intergroup skills, with the technical contribution provided primarily by subordinates. All rights reserved. Skills of an Effective Administrator book. While it is extremely important to be able to run an effective IT staff, there will be other communication aspects involved. Consequently, I would revise my original evaluation of human skill to say now that internal intragroup skills are essential in lower and middle management roles and that intergroup skills become increasingly important in successively higher levels of management. Management had gambled that this man’s ability to work with people was more important than his lack of a technical production background, and the gamble paid off. Here is a further example of this dilemma: A Pacific Coast sales manager had a reputation for decisiveness and positive action. The attitudes of a top executive color the whole character of the organization’s response and determine the “corporate personality” which distinguishes one company’s ways of doing business from another’s. However, just because the skills are interrelated does not imply that we cannot get some value from looking at them separately, or by varying their emphasis. A clear idea of these skills and of ways to measure a manager’s competence in each category still appears to me to be a most effective tool for top management, not only in understanding executive behavior, but also in the selection, training, and promotion of managers at all levels. Most of our vocational and on-the-job training programs are largely concerned with developing this specialized technical skill. Yet it has greatest importance at the lower levels of administration. Moreover, although this was a radically new situation for the operators, the production manager expected them to produce immediately at well above their previous output—even though the operators had an unfamiliar production system to cope with, the operators had never worked together as a team before, the operators and their new foreman had never worked together before, and the foreman was not in agreement with the production goals or standards. Consequently the chances for succeeding are greatly increased. He must bring into the enterprise additional resources when they are needed. The administrator needs: (a) sufficient technical skill to accomplish the mechanics of the particular job for which he is responsible; (b) sufficient human skill in working with others to be an effective group member and to be able to build cooperative effort within the team he leads; (c) sufficient conceptual skill to recognize the interrelationships of the various factors involved in his situation, which will lead him to take that action which is likely to achieve the maximum good for the total organization. At the root of this difference is industry’s search for the traits or attributes which will objectively identify the “ideal executive” who is equipped to cope effectively with any problem in any organization. You must be able to communicate processes and information to others, respond clearly to questions and requests and more. From how the boss likes her coffee, to what time you need to send the post to the post-room, employers will reward you and value you more if … He must continually specify where the company will place its emphasis in terms of products, services, and customers. A strong background in all Microsoft Office programs is crucial for those in administrative roles. Communication is a critical administrative soft skill. In the original article, I took too simplistic and naive a view of the chief executive’s role. If each executive recognizes the over-all relationships and significance of the change, he is almost certain to be more effective in administering it. He would then resist all pressures that would emphasize other values, such as ease of production or selling the highest gross margin items. The executive development programs of some of the nation’s leading corporations and colleges reflect a tremendous variation in objectives. As a result, he was able to identify strong sentiments for one man whose subsequent promotion was enthusiastically accepted by the entire group. What, then, are some of the ways in which this training can be conducted? The person with highly developed human skill is aware of his own attitudes, assumptions, and beliefs about other individuals and groups; he is able to see the usefulness and limitations of these feelings. Maintaining your calendar, planning time to complete tasks and setting proper timeline expectations are all parts of being a strong administrator. Filing, sorting, and general organisation skills are essential for office administrators. These responsibilities can be performed well with strong customer service skills which include active listening, setting expectations and communication. As a practical matter, however, the executive must develop his own human skill, rather than lean on the advice of others. Unless a person has learned to think this way early in life, it is unrealistic to expect a major change on reaching executive status. The remedial role (saving the organization when it is in great difficulty) calls for drastic human action and emphasizes conceptual and technical skills. A system administrator should be open to learning current skills. This three-skill approach makes trait testing gun necessary and substitutes for it procedures which examine a man’s ability to cope with the actual problems and situations he will find on his job. Dealing with the external demands on a manager’s unit requires conceptual skill; the limited physical and financial resources available to him tax his technical skill; and the capabilities and demands of the persons with whom he deals make it essential that he possess human skill. At the top, technical skill may be almost nonexistent, and the executive may still be able to perform effectively if his human and conceptual skills are highly developed. Recognizing these relationships and perceiving the significant elements in any situation, the administrator should then be able to act in a way which advances the over-all welfare of the total organization. We may notice that, in a very real sense, conceptual skill embodies consideration of both the technical and human aspects of the organization. I now believe this mobility is possible only in very large companies, where the chief executive has extensive staff assistance and highly competent, experienced technical operators throughout the organization. 9. This skill conception implies learning by doing. Communication in General. You must be able to speak clearly, in a way that is easy for others to understand. Administrative skills can help you to be well organized, a strong communicator and enhance your customer service skills. To be effective, he must develop his own personal point of view toward human activity, so that he will (a) recognize the feelings and sentiments which he brings to a situation; (b) have an attitude about his own experiences which will enable him to re-evaluate and learn from them; (c) develop ability in understanding what others by their actions and words (explicit or implicit) are trying to communicate to him; and (d) develop ability in successfully communicating his ideas and attitudes to others.11. An effective administrator needs excellent communication and coordination skills when working with colleagues. A strictly informative program was described to me recently by an officer and director of a large corporation who had been responsible for the executive-development activities of his company, as follows: “What we try to do is to get our promising young men together with some of our senior executives in regular meetings each month. His associates were quick to observe what appeared to be obvious indecisiveness. Often, the most internally efficient department managers are those who have committed themselves fully to the unique values and criteria of their specialized functions, without acknowledging that other departments’ differing values have any validity at all. It transcends the need to identify specific traits in an effort to provide a more useful way of looking at the administrative process. On the base rate, I’m not discussing it with you; I’m telling you to make the 250 dozen pair a week work. Similarly, although all three are of importance at every level of administration, the technical, human, and conceptual skills of the administrator vary in relative importance at different levels of responsibility. Administrative skills are qualities that help you complete tasks related to managing a business. But he will encounter severe antagonism from other departments with conflicting values. 11. Cases such as these would indicate that it is more useful to judge an administrator on the results of his performance than on his apparent traits. UNDERSTANDING . Edmund P. Learned, David H. Ulrich, and Donald R. Booz, Executive Action (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1950). 13. The human skill of dealing with individuals then becomes subordinate to the conceptual skill of integrating group interests and activities into a whole. Human skill, however, has been much less understood, and only recently has systematic progress been made in developing it. “Village” type operations with small working groups and informal organizations were the rule. The purpose of this article has been to show that effective administration depends on three basic personal skills, which have been called technical, human, and conceptual. Once they know they can make the base rate, they will go after the bonus.”, Production Manager: “You do it your way on the speed; but remember it’s the results that count. It was not surprising that neither the senior executives nor the young men felt this program was improving their administrative abilities. Clearly, human skill as defined here was lacking. Engineer: “If I’m going to be foreman of the conveyor unit, I want to do things my way. But in every case that method should be chosen which will enable the executive to develop his own personal skill in visualizing the enterprise as a whole and in coordinating and integrating its various parts. Organization skills are those related to creating structure and order, boosting productivity, and prioritizing tasks that must be completed immediately, versus those that can be postponed, delegated to another person, or eliminated altogether. In the sections which follow, an attempt will be made to define and demonstrate what these three skills are; to suggest that the relative importance of the three skills varies with the level of administrative responsibility; to present some of the implications of this variation for selection, training, and promotion of executives; and to propose ways of developing these skills. Then we give the young fellows a chance to ask questions to let them find out about the company’s history and how and why we’ve done things in the past.”. However, he has two vice presidents with exceptional human skill. This approach suggests that effective administration rests on three basic developable skills which obviate the need for identifying specific traits and which may provide a useful way of looking at and understanding the administrative process. Administrative skills are important because they keep business processes running smoothly. In this instance, when the new production controls and formalized organizations were introduced, management did not foresee the consequences of this action in the event of a future contraction of business. But does not every promotion, in the last analysis, depend on someone’s subjective judgment? This “general management point of view,” as it has come to be known, involves always thinking in terms of the following: relative emphases and priorities among conflicting objectives and criteria; relative tendencies and probabilities (rather than certainties); rough correlations and patterns among elements (rather than clear-cut cause-and-effect relationships). In fact, recent research findings lead to the conclusion that at the top level of administration this conceptual skill becomes the most important ability of all. This article was an attempt to focus attention on demonstrable skills of performance rather than on innate personality characteristics. This role has been largely overlooked in discussions of organizational requirements, but in my view, its proper fulfillment is essential to the success of the chief executive and the enterprise. Hence, the success of any decision depends on the conceptual skill of the people who make the decision and those who put it into action. Find out for yourself how these vital skills can be put to work today. He needs to be willing to accept solutions that are adequate and feasible in the total situation rather than what, from a single point of view, may be elegant or optimum. This skill is demonstrated in the way the individual perceives (and recognizes the perceptions of) his superiors, equals, and subordinates, and in the way he behaves subsequently. Operator, but wittingly, he may have to set a base rate was 50 % higher under. Without much oversight is crucial for those in administrative roles the many professional managers who move from! And visual communication complementary skills strong background in all Microsoft office programs is crucial for in. Without much oversight is crucial place a higher priority on criteria other than the... Greet customers, ensure the office is functioning properly and provide employees with office resources their! 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